Mt. Muir SPS / WSC
Mt. Whitney P5K SPS / WSC / LVMC
Keeler Needle
Crooks Peak
Discovery Pinnacle

Sun, Aug 12, 2001

With: David Wright
Monty Blankenship
Martin Blankenship
John Mayfield
Clem Atkins

Mt. Muir
Mt. Whitney
Keeler Needle
Crooks Peak
Discovery Pinnacle
Story Photos / Slideshow Map Profile
Mt. Muir later climbed Sat, Aug 24, 2002
Mt. Whitney previously climbed Thu, Sep 15, 1994
later climbed Sat, Aug 24, 2002
Discovery Pinnacle later climbed Sun, Aug 12, 2007

Keeler Needle (14,271 ft.)

"James Edward Keeler (1857-1899), an assistant to Samuel P. Langley on the latter's scientific expedition to the summit of Mount Whitney in 1881. Keeler was director of the Allegheny Observatory, 1891-98, and director of Lick Observatory, 1898-99. (EB.)"
- Peter Browning, Place Names of the Sierra Nevada

"In 1880, Samuel Pierpont Langley, the director of the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburg, Professor W. C. Day of Johns Hopkins University, and J. E. Keeler and Captain Michaelis of the U. S. Signal Service led an expedition to the summit of Whitney. Langley had received advice from Clarence King in choosing a site for his solar heat experiments. King, who was at that time directing the Survey West of the One Hundredth Meridian, suggested the summit of Whitney. Information from Langley's bolometer observations concluded that the solar constant was about three calories, while Professor Day determined that the carbonic acid content of the atmosphere was greater at low altitude than at high altitude. The two prominent spires to the south of Whitney were later named after J. E. Keeler and W. C. Day, respectively."
- Stephen F. Porcella & Cameron M. Burns, Climbing California's Fourteeners

"People have been watching Saturn for millennia, but Galileo Galilei was the first to point a telescope at the planet and see its rings. From his discovery, in 1610, until the 19th century, astronomers debated whether Saturn's rings were a solid disc or a swarm of objects. In a telescope, the rings look solid, yet Saturn's gravity should tear a solid structure apart. American astronomer James Edward Keeler resolved the dilemma in 1895. Using a spectroscope to study sunlight reflected off different parts of the rings, he found that they do not all move at the same speed, as they would if they were solid. Instead, the parts closest to Saturn are moving faster than the parts farther out. Keeler concluded that the rings must consist of individual objects revolving around Saturn just like tiny moonlets."
- Astronomical Society of the Pacific

References to can also be found in these files:

  • More of Bob's Trip Reports

    For more information see these SummitPost pages: Mt. Muir - Mt. Whitney - Keeler Needle - Crooks Peak - Discovery Pinnacle

    This page last updated: Sat Apr 7 17:02:15 2007
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